Earth, Sun, and Moon Notes

By phillipss  

I’m re-posting these notes from the homework page in case I have any kids who need to make up the quiz from Friday or for review.

Here are the concepts you need to understand for the quiz, along with videos to review:

  • The Earth’s rotation on its axis causes day and night.  When the Earth is facing the sun on one side (Western or Eastern Hemisphere), it is day.  The opposite of the Earth is experiencing night at that time – and vice versa.
  • The Earth’s tilt on its axis is what causes seasons.  The Northern and Southern Hemispheres experience opposite seasons because the Earth is tilted toward the sun in one hemisphere during summer and tilted away from the sun in the opposite hemisphere during winter.  The sun’s rays reach the earth’s hemisphere that is experiencing summer at shorter, more intense angles during the summer than in winter.
  • Shadows change as the Earth moves in relation to the sun.  Shadows form on the opposite side of a light source; so when the sun is in the east, the shadow will form to the west, and vice-versa.  A shadow’s length increases as the angle at which the sun’s rays reach Earth increase.  A shadow is shortest at noon because that’s when the sun is highest in the sky and at its shortest angle – 90 degrees.

  • The movement of the moon in relation to the sun and Earth causes the moon to change in appearance.  These changes are called phases.  It takes about 1 month for the moon to finish one cycle of its phases.
  • The New Moon phase begins the cycle.  At this time, the moon is between the sun and Earth with the lit side of the moon facing away from Earth, so we don’t see the moon – or just see a dark shadow of it.  As the moon moves through its phases, we can see different amounts lit.  As the light grows, the moon is waxing and the light is on the right.  Once the moon reaches its position where the Earth faces its fully lit side, (full moon) it begins to decrease in light or wane, and the light is on the left.

Image result for phases of the moon

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